community development program
Community development is such a method of development of the whole community in which efforts are made to raise the standard of living of the community through public participation. About 74 percent of India’s population lives in villages. Without effectively addressing the socio-economic problems of such a large section of the population, we cannot fulfill the goal of welfare state in any way. Since independence in India, the need for such a comprehensive plan was felt by which problems like illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, agricultural backwardness, filth and conservatism could be solved in the rural community. For rural development in India, it was necessary that the conditions of agriculture should be improved, social and economic structure should be changed, housing conditions should be improved, cultivable land should be provided to the farmers, the level of public health and education. should be raised up and special protection should be given to the weaker sections.
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pay a callTo achieve this, a pilot scheme was first implemented in 1948 in Etawah and Gorakhpur districts of Uttar Pradesh. Inspired by its success, an agreement was signed between India and America in January 1952, in which financial assistance was accepted by Ford Foundation of America for the comprehensive development of rural development in India. This scheme of rural development was named Community Development Scheme and work on this scheme was started by establishing 55 development blocks from October 2, the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, in 1952 itself.
definition of community development plan
Clarifying the meaning of community development in the report of the Planning Commission, it was said that “Community development is a scheme by which changes can be brought in the social and economic life of rural society by discovering new means.
Prof. A.RAccording to Desai, “Community Development Planning is such a method by which efforts are made to start the process of transformation in the social and economic life of the villages laid down in the Five Year Plans”They mean that community development is a means through which the goal of rural progress set by the Five Year Plans can be achieved.
Raina (R.Nraina) states that “community development is an integrated program that deals with all aspects of rural life and applies to the entire rural community, without giving any importance to religion, caste, social or economic inequalities.
It is clear from the above definitions that community development is an integrated system through which efforts are made for the development of rural life. In this plan, emphasis is laid on education, training, health, development of cottage industries, agricultural communication and social reform.
Objectives of Community Development Plan
The main objective of community development plan is to make all round development of rural life and to guide the progress of rural community and better standard of living. As such, the objectives of community development programs are so broad that it is a difficult task to make a definite list of them. Even after this, various scholars have mentioned many objectives of community development program on priority basis.
Dr. Dubey (S.C. Dube) has explained the purpose of community development plan by dividing it into parts:
To make efforts to increase the agricultural production of the country in reasonable quantity, to increase the facilities of communication, to spread education and to improve the condition of rural health and sanitation.
To initiate the process of cultural change systematically to transform the social and economic life in the villages.
The 8 objectives of this scheme have been clarified by the Ministry of Community Development, Government of India. These objectives are as follows:-
To bring change in the mental attitude of the rural people.
To develop responsible and efficient leadership in the villages.
To make the entire rural people self-reliant and progressive.
To raise the economic status of the rural people, to modernize agriculture on the one hand and to develop rural industries on the other.
To make these reforms practical, to improve the condition of rural women and families.
To develop the proper personality of the youth as future citizens of the nation.
To safeguard the interests of rural teachers.
To protect the health of the rural community.
community development program
Community development program in India is now seen as a necessary condition for the development of rural life. Although various apprehensions were being raised about the success of the scheme for the last few years, but in view of the achievements of this scheme, such apprehensions are gradually being resolved. The truth of this statement can be judged from the fact that in the year 1952, at present the number of these development blocks in the whole of India is 5,304 and through them today almost the entire rural population of the country is being provided various facilities.
It becomes necessary to understand the present responsibilities and achievements of the community development programme.
- Integrated Rural Development Program –
Integrated Rural Development Program is the most important program to be completed by the community development blocks. This is also often referred to as ‘Integrated Community Development Programme’.
- National Rural Employment Program-
The problem of unemployment in villages is mainly related to seasonal and semi-unemployment. For this, there is a need to provide additional means of agriculture to the farmers on the one hand and on the other hand it is necessary to give new opportunities of employment to the more poor farmers in their spare time. Initially, an attempt was made to fulfill this need through the ‘Grain for Work’ scheme, but from the year 1981, ‘National Rural Employment Program’ was started in its place. The main objective of this program is to provide additional employment opportunities to the farmers in their spare time; To provide them with advanced agricultural equipment and to improve the economic condition of the villagers.
- Program for drought-prone areas-
There are many parts of our country where the problem of drought often arises. The above program has been started for such areas with the objective that farmers can be informed about the crops that can be grown even in less water, maximum use of water sources, increase in plantation and good breed of animals. Rural poverty can be reduced by developin5. Desert Development Program –
This program was started from 1977-78 through community development blocks in India. Its objective is to plant more and more greenery on the land of desert, barren and rugged areas, find and use water sources, promote tube-wells by providing electricity in villages and develop livestock and horticulture.
- Forward Plan of Tribal Development –
Under this scheme, efforts have been made for tribal development in some tribal dominated areas of Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa. Through this, welfare programs are being implemented by thoroughly studying tribal problems in economic development, communication, administration, agriculture and related areas.
- Forward plan of hill development –
This program was started in Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu for all round development of the farmers of hilly region and to improve their standard of living. Initially, there was a provision to keep it running only for the period of the fifth five year plan, but later on this program was also worked on during the period of the sixth plan.
- Nutritious Diet Program –
This program is run by the Central Government with the help of World Health Organization and UNICEF. Its objective is to acquaint the villagers with the advanced methods of nutritious food and to arrange nutritious food once a day for the school children at the primary level.
- Animal Husbandry –
The contribution of development blocks is also increasing continuously in improving the breeds of animals and supplying good breed animals to the villagers. Now, on an average, 20 animals of improved quality and about 400 chickens are supplied by each development block in a year and an average of 530 animals are inseminated through improved methods in a year. Due to this, the breed of cattle in rural areas is continuously improving.
- Promotion of Voluntary Organizations –
The main basis for the success of community development program is to get maximum participation of voluntary organizations in this scheme. For this work, simplifying the rules of registration of voluntary organizations, training the members of the executive, helping in the determination of special programs, giving grants for maintenance, observing their functioning, giving inspiration awards to women’s circles and Leading selected rural womenThese are the facilities through which voluntary organizations can play the most important role for rural development.
- Health and Family Planning –
The community development blocks have achieved special success in creating awareness among the villagers about small sized families and improving their health status. Till June 1997, efforts were made to improve the health of rural population in our country through 22,000 primary health centers and more than 1.36 lakh sub-centres. Now the work of imparting population related education to the villagers is also being done by the development blocks under the Rural Extension Services.
- EDUCATION AND TRAINING-
Extensive efforts were made for rural education through community development scheme, for this Mahila Mandal, Krishak Dal and Yuvak Mangal Dal were established in the villages. From time to time, by organizing exhibitions, festivals and training camps for rural leaders, they are given practical education in agriculture and handicrafts